Wednesday, August 2, 2017

Brief Note on Models of Teaching

Models of Teaching
Families of Models
Bruce Joyce and Marsha Weil have identified four main families of models
1. Information Processing Family
Main Focus: Help students in the mastery  of methods of  inquiry; mastery of academic concepts and facts; development of general  intellectual skills such as the ability to think more logically .
Eg:   Concept Attainment Model
Advance Organizer   Model
Biological Science Inquiry Training Model
Cognitive Development Model
Synetics Model (to develop creativity)
2. Behaviour Systems Family
Main Focus:  To change the behaviour of the learner; to transmit culture by teaching skills and knowledge
Eg.  Direct Instruction Model
Contingency Management Model
Mastery Learning
Learning from Simulations
Model to develop the six varieties of performances identified by Gagne
3. Social Family
Main Focus :  To help  students work together to identify and solve problems; to develop skills in human relations,: to become aware of personal and social values
Eg:  Jurisprudential Inquiry Model (learning to think about  social policy)
Cooperative learning
Group Investigation
Role Playing
4. Personal Family
Main Focus: To increase the students’ sense of self-worth; to help students understand  themselves more fully; to help students recognize their emotions and become more aware of the way emotions affect other aspects of their behaviour; to help them develop goals for learning; to help students develop plans for increasing their competence ; to increase the students’ creativity and playfulness and to increase the students’ openness to new experience.
Eg: Awareness Training Model
Classroom Meeting Model
Non-directive Teaching Model
Concept Attainment model
What is Concept Attainment?
Concept Attainment is an indirect instructional strategy that uses a structured inquiry process. It is based on the work of Jerome Bruner. In concept attainment, students figure out the attributes of a group or category that has already been formed by the teacher. To do so, students compare and contrast examples that contain the attributes of the concept with examples that do not contain those attributes. They then separate them into two groups. Concept attainment, then, is the search for and identification of attributes that can be used to distinguish examples of a given group or category from non-examples.
What is its purpose?
Concept attainment is designed to clarify ideas and to introduce aspects of content. It engages students into formulating a concept through the use of illustrations, word cards or specimens called examples. Students who catch onto the idea before others are able to resolve the concept and then are invited to suggest their own examples, while other students are still trying to form the concept. For this reason, concept attainment is well suited to classroom use because all thinking abilities can be challenged throughout the activity. With experience, children become skilled at identifying relationships in the word cards or specimens. With carefully chosen examples, it is possible to use concept attainment to teach almost any concept in all subjects.
helps make connections between what students know and what they will be learning
learn how to examine a concept from a number of perspectives
learn how to sort out relevant information
extends their knowledge of a concept by classifying more than one example of that concept
students go beyond merely associating a key term with a definition
concept is learned more thoroughly and retention is improved 
How do I do it?
Steps of Concept Attainment:
Select and define a concept
Select the attributes
Develop positive and negative examples
Introduce the process to the students
Present the examples and list the attributes
Develop a concept definition
Give additional examples
Discuss the process with the class
How can I adapt it?
This activity can be done on the chalkboard, chart paper or overhead projector to a large or small group. It also works well as one-on-one work. Rather than starting with the teacher's concept, use a student's concept. Concept attainment can be used to introduce or conclude a unit of study.
Variations on the Concept Attainment Model
Present all of the positive examples to the students at once and have them determine the essential attributes.
Present all of the positive and negative examples to the students without labeling them as such. Have them group the examples into the two categories and determine the essential attributes.
Have the students define, identify the essential attributes of, and choose positive examples for a concept already learned in class.
Use the model as a group activity.
Assessment and Evaluation Considerations
Have the students:
write the definition from memory.
determine positive and negative examples from a given group.
create their own examples of the concept.
"think aloud"
Write a learning log
Do an oral presentation
Create a web, concept map, flow chart, illustrations, KWL chart, T chart
David  Ausubel
An advance organizer is a tool used to introduce the lesson topic and illustrate the relationship between what the students are about to learn and the information they have already learned. They are used during expository instruction, which is the use of an expert to present information in a way that makes it easy for students to make connections from one concept to the next.
By using an advance organizer to link the new information to old information, the new information can     be remembered more easily.
There are three basic purposes of advance organizers.
First, they direct students' attention to what is important in the upcoming lesson.
Second, they highlight relationships among ideas that will be presented.
Third, they remind students of relevant information that they already have.

An advance organizer is not a summary or review of a previous lesson. It also doesn't provide a structure for the current lesson. Instead, it provides a structure for student thinking. It acts as a conceptual bridge from the old information to the new information. A person's existing knowledge about a concept is the most important factor in whether new material will be meaningful and how well it can be learned and retained.
Analogies and metaphors are frequently used as advance organizers because they help students recognize that the topic they are beginning to learn is not totally new, but rather can be related to something they are already comfortable with. This not only helps the students better understand the new concept, but it also helps to encourage and motivate students, as it makes them more confident about the material to come. They also help teachers fit the new information into a larger framework or existing schema. They help students understand the governing questions, issues and propositions that are reflected in that hierarchy. If students understand the basic outline of the structure, they are able to fill in the gaps with new and related information as it is presented to them.
Goal of learning subject matter and improvement of presentational methods of teaching is important.
His theory of meaningful verbal learning deals with three concerns-
* how knowledge(curriculum content) is organised.
* how mind works to process new information(learning).
* how teachers can apply these ideas about curriculum and learning when they present new material to students(instruction).
This model helps teacher to organise and convey information as meaningfully and effectively as possibly.
Advance organisers provide concepts and principles to students directly.
This model is designed to strengthen students cognitive structure.
Cognitive structure deals with – what kind of knowledge of a field is in our mind, how much of it there is, and how well it is organised.
Before presenting new material, existing cognitive structure should be increased by presenting concepts.
Meaningful learning can occur if material is solidly organised and this depends on the learner.
Acc to Ausubel, any subject is a chain of concepts and in our mind also, when we accept these facts, that is also settled as a chain in our mind, if new concept is presented as related with the old one.



             Social science is a major category of academic discipline, concerned with society and the relationship among individuals within a society. It has many branches, each of which is considered as ‘social science subject’. The main subjects of social sciences included Economics, Political Science, Geography, History and Sociology. The teaching of social sciences has many aims. It has given as follows;
General aims
·         Acquiring knowledge
·         The development of reasoning power and critical judgment
·         Training in independent study
·         Formulation of habits and skills
·         Training in desirable patterns of conduct
·         Develop the National Integration and Patriotic sense
·         International Understanding
Aims of teaching SS at secondary stage
        Secondary stage students are adolescence. It is considered ‘problem age’. So teaching of social science to them is very important. The main aims of teaching social sciences in the secondary stage are given as;
·         Inculcating social values, personal values, constitutional values…
·         Makes responsible citizenship
·         Citizenship training
·         Develop awareness of national integration and international understanding
·         Socialization
·         Develop peace of mind
·         Recognition of Social-familial-personal responsibilities
·         Cultural preservation, transmission and transformation.
Objectives of teaching History, Geography, Economics and Political Science
·         To inculcate attitudes of historical-mindedness, scientific temper and such other attitudes as will aid in training for citizenship
·         To develop cultural interest
·         To accumulate certain definite knowledge of the past
·         To attain noble ideals  and high concepts of loyal to one’s self and to one’s fellow men by teaching the elements of civilization in the past
·         To develop the close relationship of humanity with nature and human development from time o time
·         To identify the varieties in the distribution of physical and economic phenomena over the surface of the earth
·         To analyze the way of life of the people all over the world
·         To develop an appreciation of interdependence of various geographical regions
·         To develop understanding of the close relationship of human beings with the geography, where the live
·         To know modern economic principles by observation and through understanding of current practices
·         To apply sound economic theories to everyday life
·         To develop a thorough appreciation of economic problems and a clear insight by the pupil into the social and economic environment
Political science:
·         To provide the information about social arrangement to maintain peace and order
·         To develop democratic values
·         To make ability to analyze political system and behavior
·         To develop awareness of individuals on the relationship of human existence with the political life they have
Conceptual, inquiry, skill and affective objectives of social science
              Objectives of the social science range from broad goals for the total program  to specific instructional objectives in teaching plans. The four main types are;
              Conceptual outcomes are being defined in terms of concepts, themes and generalizations they may be developed in the social science.
·         To identify the roles, interaction and interdependence of individuals at home, in the community in state and nation
·         Functions of such institutions
·         Contribution of men and groups to changing cultural heritage
·         Environmental problems and concerns, causes and effects of pollution and steps to ensure environment
             To develop competence in using modes, methods and processes of inquiry, including the ability to:
·         Use such inquiry processes as recalling, observing, comparing, classifying, interpreting, defining, generalizing, synthesizing, inferring, predicting, hypothesizing and evaluating.
·         Make plans for investigating topics and problems, collecting data, organizing and processing data, deriving conclusions and assessing outcomes and procedures of inquiry.
·         Social skill
·         Study skill and work habits
·         Group work skills
·         Intellectual skills
        To identify, describe and demonstrate in individual behavior and group activities, values and feelings of individuals who are possessing such qualities like open mind, responsible…..

Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
                The word Taxonomy has derived from the Greek word Taxis which means a system of classification. Bloom and his associates set up following three domains of educational objectives.

Cognitive domain:
                    It is concerned with the intellectual aspect of internal process or cognition. The different categories of instructional objectives in this domain are;
·         Knowledge: related with the acquisition of different types of information received by the learner as part of instruction
·         Comprehension: result of mental process of the learner which enables to transform the different forms of information acquired to a more comprehensive format
·         Application: the learner applies knowledge that has been acquired and comprehended into new and similar situations.
·         Analysis: it is an intellectual process by which the learner is able to analyze the acquired comprehended and applied knowledge into its constituent parts or elements
·         Synthesis: the mental ability of the learner to integrate the acquired, comprehended, applied and analyzed knowledge information to a comprehensive whole
·         Evaluation: Judgment  about a value of a material and methods for given purposes
Affective domain:
           Objectives which emphasize feelings, emotion …… The different categories of instructional objectives in this domain are;
·         Receiving: awareness, willingness to respond and attention
·         Responding: acquaintance in responding, willingness to respond and satisfaction in response
·         Valuing: acceptance of value, performance for a value, commitment…
·         Organizations: conceptualization of value, organization of value system
·         Characterization: generalized set
Psycho-motor domain:
              Related with purposive actions. The different categories of instructional objectives in this domain are;
·         Perception: sensory simulation
·         Set: mental and physical readiness
·         Guided Reponses: overt behavioral act of an individual under the guidance of the instructor
·         Mechanism: micro analysis in which each step is properly examined
·         Complex overt response
·         Adaptation
Specification: The specified overt behavior of learner is called specification

Revised Boom’s taxonomy
                      RBT was developed by Anderson and Krathwohl. Bloom’s taxonomy is based on objective based learning while RBT is based on learning of process or content. RBT is based on knowledge dimension (factual, conceptual and Meta cognitive) and process dimension (procedural acquisition of knowledge).
In each knowledge dimension learning can be taken place through six procedures. They are:
·         Remembering
·         Understanding
·         Applying
·         Analyzing
·         Evaluating
·         Creating
·         Based process based learning
·         The procedural dimensions are titled in action verb
·         The level synthesis is avoided
·         The highest level is creating

Values of teaching SS
Social science teaching aims at developing values among students. The values to develop have common behavior, regional behavior, cultural behavior and so on.
·         Social sensibility
·         Acquires social experiences
·         Develop Problem solving ability
·         Co-operative thinking
·         Helping mentality
·         Adjustability
·         Personal values
·         Thinking and reasoning
·         Integrated thinking
·         Democratic sense
·         Secular sense
·         Patriotic sense